• Pioneering civil lawsuits for harm to threatened species: A guide to claims with examples from Indonesia (2021)

    Civil lawsuits are a breakthrough in environmental law—including for threatened species. This Guide explains how lawsuits could be used to protect species harmed by acts such as illegal wildlife trade (IWT). It describes how to explain that harm, and identify appropriate remedies for use in conservation litigation. It also provides an illustrative example involving the illegal trade of one Bornean Orangutan in Indonesia.

  • Civil lawsuits: a novel response to illegal wildlife trade (2021)

    This Policy Brief highlights civil lawsuits as a breakthrough in environmental law—including to protect threatened species harmed by acts such as illegal wildlife trade (IWT). Unlike traditional approaches that focus on punishing perpetrators of environmental harm, this strategy refocuses efforts onto remedying the social, economic and environmental harm caused by IWT. Many countries have enabling legislation that allow such lawsuits, although they are not yet commonly used against IWT.

  • Planned Deforestation: Forest Policy in papua (2021)

    The report shows that areas of forest estate released for oil palm plantation development still contain 1,145,902 hectares of natural forest cover; almost twice the area of all deforestation that has occurred in Papua over the last twenty years. Bearing in mind company recipients of forest estate releases (as no areas are released to local or customary communities) are procedurally permitted to carry out deforestation and will actually be blamed if they do not develop oil palm plantations in those areas, this phenomenon shows that basically the government is planning deforestation in Papua.

  • The Macao Money Machine - profit shifting and tax leakage in Indonesia's pulp exports (2020)

    Through analysis of gaps in trade data and statements released by Toba Pulp Lestari (TPL) and its affiliates, the report estimates that Toba Pulp’s use of this profit shifting arrangement had the apparent effect of understating the company’s revenues in Indonesia by approximately US$ 426 million during the decade 2007–2016. The report also indicates that APRIL apparently used profit shifting practices during these years that were similar in structure and effect to the ones used by Toba Pulp. The APRIL Group’s practices appear to have had the effect of under-stating the company’s revenues in Indonesia by approximately US$ 242 million during 2016–2018.

  • Sustaining Deforestation: APRIL’s links with PT Adindo Hutani Lestari undercut “No Deforestation” pledge (2020)

    As the analysis in this report shows, from June 3, 2015 (the date on which APRIL’s current “no deforestation” commitment came into effect) through August 31, 2020, an estimated 7,291 hectares of natural forest has been destroyed within Adindo’s concession area. Of the total deforestation, 52% has occurred in areas designated as High Conservation Value (HCV) in an assessment commissioned by Adindo and shared by the APRIL Group. More than 50% of the deforestation was detected on carbon-rich peatlands, which are protected under Indonesian law depending on their depth and condition.

  • Security Protocols for Environmental Defenders (2020)

    As human rights workers, environmental defenders are not infrequently subjected to violence and torture; often resulting in death. Criminalization is a method frequently used by state authorities and other actors. Therefore, strategic steps are necessary to ensure the safety and security of environmental defenders when carrying out their work in defending the environment.

  • Corporate ownership and dominance of Indonesia’s palm oil supply chains (2020)

    A handful of corporate groups dominate exports and refining capacity in Indonesia’s palm oil supply chain. Using information on capacity and ownership for plantations, mills, refineries and exports, the brief analyse the market concentration at each stage of the supply chain to better understand corporate group operations and dominance. It also explore the extent of vertical integration within Indonesia’s palm oil supply chain, i.e. the ownership of assets at different stages by a company.

  • Untouchable: The Vulnerability of Reclamation and Post-mining Guarantees to Corruption (2020)

    This brief investigates corruption vulnerability in reclamation and post-mining guarantee fund policies by considering factors that enable corruption in various provisions and pieces of legislation. The analyses identify corruption risks in reclamation guarantee fund processes, beginning with planning, through the guarantee fund depositing process, and reclamation and post-mining implementation, up to disbursement.

  • Many Banks And Investors That Remains Happy To Burn Money In Dirty Energy (2020)

    Many countries, including Indonesia, have claimed they would switch to using renewable energy. But, in the last 3 years, 2017-2019, funding for the development plan of coal-fired steam power plants (PLTU) globally continues to increase. US$ 745 billion was disbursed for coal-plant development plan globally, which 45 percent of the funding is in Asia.

  • Perpetual Haze: Pulp Production, Peatland, and The Future of Fire Risk In Indonesia (2019)

    In 2019, wildfires in Indonesia have burned over 850,000 hectares, posing health risks for millions across the region, and releasing an estimated 708 million tons of CO2 emissions. Over 40,000 fire alerts have been detected inside industrial forest plantation concessions, including many that supply wood to Indonesia’s major pulp producers, and 60% of the fire alerts in the worst affected concessions have occurred on carbon-rich peatlands. In April 2019, the Government of Indonesia significantly weakened protection measures for peatlands within pulpwood plantation concessions that were enacted following the 2015 fires to avoid future haze episodes. Through October 2019, nearly 50% of the fire alerts in the worst affected HTI concessions were located within areas the MoEF had previously designated as Peat Protection Zones.

  • Borneo Deforestation Update: Asia Pulp & Paper and APRIL Groups Continued in 2018 to Source Wood from Controversial Supplier Owned by Djarum Group (2019)

    Sebagai pemutakhiran terhadap laporan sebelumnya (Agustus 2018) perihal deforestasi di Kalimantan Timur dalam konsesi Grup Djarum, laporan ini menemukan bahwa setidaknya hingga 2018, Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings Limited (APRIL) dan Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) masih menerima pasokan kayu dari perusahaan yang melanggar komitmen zero deforestasinya. Hal ini terlihat dari pelaporan perusahaan ke pemerintah dalam rencana pemenuhan bahan baku industri, yakni adanya pasokan dari PT Fajar Surya Swadaya (FSS, anak usaha Djarum Grup.

  • Peat Protection No Reason For Destroying Natural Forest: “Land swap” policy risks deforestation from Aceh to Papua (2019)

    The Government of Indonesia appears to be planning deforestation as a result of its peatlands protection initiative, according to an analysis by the Koalisi Anti Mafia Hutan of the Government’s land swap policy. The land swap policy is intended to compensate timber plantation concessions (Hutan Tanaman Industri, or HTI) impacted by Government-mandated peat restoration. The peatlands protection efforts aim to prevent disastrous fires as occurred in 2015.

  • APP acknowledges links to controversial suppliers, but fails to release an auditor’s report (2019)

    Seven takeaways from a new report by Asia Pulp & Paper on links to its pulpwood suppliers in Indonesia

  • More Peatland Fire Disaster For Indonesia? Pulp companies and government not transparent with restoration plans for fire prone peatland (2019)

    Media reports indicate that 45 HTI companies had submitted revised work plans to the Ministry, as of 2 February 2018. Over one year later, however, neither the list of companies nor details of the changes to the work plans, has been released for public review. The lack of transparency prevents the public from being able to monitor the restoration of peat ecosystems in HTI concession areas.

  • COALRUPTION: Shedding Light on Political Corruption in Indonesia’s Coal Mining Sector (2018)

    Although Joko Widodo said publicly that “without proper management, Indonesia’s coal reserves will only last for the next 83 years” and “demand the responsible use of the resources”, his political actions and policies show no deviation from business-as-usual. The political corruption in coal mining is rampant, and its impact on people, the environment and the economy should worry all Indonesians. But there will be no significant change unless anti-fraud government agencies, such as KPK and the Ombudsman, watchdog NGOs, and the mass media work together to uncover and take action against corruption in the coal mining business.

  • APP and APRIL violate zero-deforestation policies with wood purchases from Djarum Group concessions in East Kalimantan (2018)

    In recent years, global paper giants Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) and Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings Limited (APRIL) have made heavily publicized commitments to have “zero deforestation” and respect for human rights in their supply chains. Yet official wood utilization reports compiled by the Indonesian government show that in 2017 both companies purchased wood from PT Fajar Surya Swadaya, an East Kalimantan concession-holder, which has cleared nearly 20,000 hectares (ha) of natural forest since 2013. APP also purchased wood from PT Silva Rimba Lestari, another East Kalimantan forestry company which has cleared more than 12,000 ha of natural forest during the same period.

  • Half-Hearted Recognition: A Study on Customary Forest Concession License in Papua (2018)

    This brief report describes the latest condition of forest management policy faced by the Papuan indigenous peoples. This report focuses on the Customary Forest Concession License (IUPHHK-MHA) when discussing challenges that take form of competition between the central government and Papua regional administrations over forest management. This competition is found in the implementation of forest and indigenous peoples-related laws and regulations.

  • Removing The Corporate Mask: An Assessment of the Ownership and Management Structures of Asia Pulp & Paper’s Declared Wood Suppliers in Indonesia (2018)

    This report analyzes the ownership and management structures of APP’s 33 declared pulpwood suppliers in Indonesia – which control 2.6 million hectares of HTI plantation concessions – and of two companies that APP has recently named as prospective suppliers. The analysis is based on a review of 78 companies’ official corporate registry profiles. Of the 27 forest plantation companies (holding 31 HTI concession licenses) that APP has described as being “independent” partners, at least 24 companies (holding 29 HTI concession licenses) show apparent close links with the Sinar Mas Group. The 24 forest plantation companies are owned by groups of holding companies, a majority of which are or recently were registered in offices located at the same street address as the Sinar Mas Group’s corporate headquarters.

  • Indonesian Civil Society Calls On Government For Transparency And Accountability to Protect and Restore Peatlands and Forests (2018)

    We support the Government of Indonesia taking strong steps to protect and restore Indonesia’s peatlands, including policies to stop the conversion of peatlands into industrial timber plantations (Hutan Tanaman Industri, HTI). These plantation areas account for 2.1 million hectares, or 16% of the total 12.9 million hectares of priority peatlands that the Government targets to restore.

  • APP is not yet on a sustainable track and progress on its commitments has not been sufficient (2018)

    On the eve of the fifth anniversary of APP’s Forest Conservation Policy (FCP), the undersigned NGOs highlight five issues that indicate the company is not yet on a sustainable track and progress on its commitments has not been sufficient.

  • Private Gain, Publik Risk: Guarantees And Credit Enhancement For Coal-fi red Power Plants In Indonesia (2017)

    All of the guarantee and credit enhancement programs provide a substantial subsidy to the coal projects they cover, while shifting the financial risks to the guarantor. These risks are ultimately borne by the Indonesian government, taxpayer, and ratepayer. As described in this analysis, the risk of providing guarantees is amplified when there are many overlapping guarantees, as there are for coal-fired power plants.

  • OKI Mill: Will APP default on its zero deforestation commitment? (2015)

    This report examines whether Sinar Mas/APP concessions in South Sumatra have established enough planted area to produce the volumes of wood fiber that OKI will require under pulp production capacities of 2.0 million, 2.8 million, and 3.2 million tons/yr. The analysis finds the group’s South Sumatra concessions are at least 59,000 hectares short of the planted areas needed to produce the volumes of fiber OKI will consume, even under a high-growth scenario and with 2.0 million tons/yr of pulp capacity. The size of the shortfall is projected to become significantly greater under medium-growth or low-growth plantation scenarios and/or if OKI’s pulp capacity is expanded to 2.8 million or 3.2 million tons/yr. Will Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) default on its zero deforestation commitment?

  • Indonesia’s Legal Timber Supply Gap And Implications For Expansion Of Milling Capacity: A Review of the Road Map for the Revitalization of the Forest Industry, Phase 1 (2015)

    The analyses in this paper — which rely on government and forest-industry data only — indicate that large operators are consuming more wood than the MoF reported as being legally produced (in 2014, there was a gap of more than 30 percent). Presumably this gap continues to be met by an unregulated, and therefore illegal, wood supply.

  • SVLK Flawed: An independent evaluation of Indonesia’s timber legality certification system (2014)

    The report looked at 183 forestry companies that have attained SVLK certificate in all of Indonesia. In summary, today’s SVLK certification/V-Legal certificate does not guarantee the exclusion of timber products derived from: licenses obtained through corrupt practices, clearing of large area of natural forest of an indigenous community, habitats of critically endangered species, draining of deep peat lands causing mega tons of GHG emissions.